АНОСМИЯ ПРИ COVID-19: ОСНОВНЫЕ МЕХАНИЗМЫ И ОЦЕНКА РОЛИ ОБОНЯТЕЛЬНОГО ПУТИ В РАЗВИТИИ ИНФЕКЦИОННОГО ПОРАЖЕНИЯ ГОЛОВНОГО МОЗГА


Авторы

  • Р. Бутовт Медицинский коллегиум им. Людвика Ридигера, Университет Николая Коперника
  • К. С. фон Бартельд Медицинская школа Рино, Университет Невады
https://doi.org/10.32415/jscientia_2021_7_5_28-59

Ключевые слова:

аносмия, COVID-19, обонятельный эпителий, SARS-CoV-2, ангиотензинпревращающий фермент 2, заболеваемость, диагностика, гипосмия, потеря обоняния, вкус, инфекционное поражение головного мозга

Аннотация

В последние месяцы появилась информация о том, что новый коронавирус, ставший причиной пандемии COVID-19, вызывает снижение обонятельной и вкусовой чувствительности у значительной части пациентов. При этом хемосенсорная недостаточность зачастую является самым ранним, а иногда и единственным проявлением инфекции у не имеющих других симптомов носителей вируса SARS-CoV-2. Все больший интерес в последнее время, таким образом, вызывают возможные причины ранней и специфичной хемосенсорной дисфункции при COVID-2019. В данном обзоре мы провели анализ результатов недавних исследований, показавших, что распространенность таких симптомов как нарушения обоняния и вкуса у пациентов с COVID-19 не одинакова в различных популяциях. Вероятно, это обусловлено различиями в S-белке нескольких разновидностей вируса, либо межпопуляционными отличиями человеческих белков, которые используются вирусом для проникновения в клетки, что изменяет инфекционные свойства вируса. При подготовке этого обзора мы опирались на актуальные сведения о клеточных и молекулярных механизмах, лежащих в основе индуцированной вирусом аносмии, особо акцентируя внимание на новых данных о ключевой роли поддерживающих клеток обонятельного эпителия. Мы также провели критический анализ последних данных, свидетельствующих о поражении головного мозга при COVID-19, и оценили теоретическую возможность и пути проникновения SARS-CoV-2 в мозг через обонятельный эпителий полости носа. Помимо этого, мы проанализировали перспективы использования симптомов хемосенсорной дисфункции для скрининговой экспресс-диагностики COVID-19 на ранних стадиях развития заболевания.

Оригинал статьи: Butowt R, von Bartheld CS. Anosmia in COVID-19: Underlying Mechanisms and Assessment of an Olfactory Route to Brain Infection. Neuroscientist. 2020;1-22. DOI: 10.1177/1073858420956905

Статья переведена на русский язык и опубликована согласно условиям лицензии Creative Commons Attribution 4.0.

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30.10.2021

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Бутовт Р., фон Бартельд К.С. АНОСМИЯ ПРИ COVID-19: ОСНОВНЫЕ МЕХАНИЗМЫ И ОЦЕНКА РОЛИ ОБОНЯТЕЛЬНОГО ПУТИ В РАЗВИТИИ ИНФЕКЦИОННОГО ПОРАЖЕНИЯ ГОЛОВНОГО МОЗГА // Juvenis Scientia. 2021. т. 7, № 5. сс. 28-59. DOI: 10.32415/jscientia_2021_7_5_28-59.

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